Cochlear Dysfunction in Chronic Otitis Media and Its Determinants

Document Type: Original

Authors

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya Deemed to be University Mangalore -575018

Abstract

Introduction:
Long-standing chronic otitis media (COM) may lead to sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The present study aimed to evaluate the factors affecting the sensorineural component to counsel patients regarding the risk of SNHL at the event of untreated COM.
 
Material and Methods:
A time-bound cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at a tertiary care hospital. The study population included the study group comprising 137 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and the control group which consisted of 137 individuals with the same age range and gender as the case study group. Moreover, the hearing was assessed using a pure tone audiogram and specialtests of hearing.
 
Results:
Based on the findings of the present study,the SNHL was found in 71.4% of CSOM cases with an ear discharge duration of more than 5 years. The SNHL occurred in 55.2% and 44.7% of the cases with pars flaccida and of pars tensa perforations, respectively. In the case of pars tensa perforation, greater perforation size resulted in a steady increase in the odds of developing SNHL. Patients with subtotal and total perforations were at higher risk of developing SNHL.
 
Conclusion:
Patients with longer duration of disease, squamous type of disease, and larger size of pars tensa perforation had greater susceptibility to develop SNHL. Therefore, eradication ofthedisease from the middle ear and early reconstruction of the hearing mechanism duringthe course of the disease result in reducing the burden of SNHL.

Keywords