Rhinosporidiosis- Epidemiological, Clinicoradiological, Immunological Profile

Document Type : Original


1 Department of ENT-Head and Nech Surgery, AIIMS Raipur, India.

2 Department of Microbiology, AIIMS Raipur, India.

3 Department of Biochemistry, AIIMS Raipur, India.

4 Department of Radiology, AIIMS Raipur, India.



Rhinosporidiosis is an enigmatic disease with many unsolved queries right from taxonomy to treatment. This study has been done to understand the disease characteristics with a peek into the lesser known immunological aspects of it by studying the changes in levels of certain primarily cell-mediated immunity (CMI)-specific cytokines in rhinosporidiosis patients.

Materials and Methods:

A prospective observational study was performed. Detailed epidemiological and clinicoradiological assessment was done along with selected inflammatory and immunological markers. The tests for immunological parameters were done by ELISA and CLIA and data were compiled and analyzed using appropriate statistics.


Disease showed male predominance and all patients gave a universal pond bathing history. Majority patients had O+ve blood group. Right side was affected most with nasal obstruction being commonest symptom. Nasal cavity was involved in majority of cases with inferior turbinate and meatus being sites of maximum occurrence and attachment. Nasopharynx, oropharynx were other involved sites. Extra-nasal sites included skin and parotid gland. Endoscopic and CECT findings were similar and confirmed intraoperatively. Tests for inflammatory markers showed no significant change in patients. Immunological markers -IL-6, TNF-beta- levels showed significant increase though no such increase was found with IFN-gamma levels.


Rhinosporidiosis has a definite epidemiological and clinical-radiological profile. A clear association with exposure to contaminated water is present which could not be further associated with disease duration or recurrence. The immunological profile needs to be further investigated upon since it remains quite elusive.


Main Subjects

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