The Fungi Flora of Healthy Nasal Mucosa in Kerman, Iran

Document Type : Original


1 Department of biostatistics and epidemiology Department, Faculty of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of otorhinolaryngology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Department of medical mycology and parasitology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Environmental fungi, molds and yeasts, can infest the nasal cavity through inhaled air. There is some evidence that they could be the main cause of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) but little is known about the normal fungal flora in the human nose.
The objective of this study was to assess the normal fungal flora of the nasal mucus in adults in Kerman.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a cross sectional study. Nasal swabs were used to sample the nasal cavity of 100 adults, 46 men and 54 women between 17 and 60 years old, currently living in Kerman, Iran.
Among 100 healthy people, one or more types of fungi were detected in 31 (31%) persons; Candida in 12 persons, Aspergillus in 8 persons, Streptomyces in 8 persons, and Penicillium, Nocardia and Mucor in a few persons. In only 4 persons, more than one type of fungi was detected.  There was no significant relation between age, sex, education or smoking with the presence of fungi.
Fungi have been considered one of the causative agents of CRS and differences in climatic conditions can influence the fungi flora.