Central Myxoma / Myxofibroma of the Jaws: A Clinico-Epidemiologic Review

Document Type : Original


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria.

3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Aminu Kano University Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.

4 Department of Pathology/Morbid Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria.


Myxomas are a group of benign rare tumors of connective-tissue origin that occur in both hard (central) and soft tissues of the body. The aim of this study is to highlight our experience in the management of central myxoma of the jaw, with emphasis on its clinic-epidemiologic features as seen in our environment. 
Materials and Methods:
All patients who were managed for central myxoma of the jaw at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department of a regional University Teaching Hospital between September 1997 and October 2015 were retrospectively studied. Details sourced included age, sex, site of tumor, duration, signs/symptoms, treatment given, and complications. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Microsoft Excel 2007 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Results from descriptive statistics were represented in the form of tables and charts, with a test for significance (ρ) using Pearson Chi-square (χ2) set at 0.05.
A total of 16 patients were managed within the period reviewed, consisting of 10 (62.5%) females and six (37.5%) males, giving a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.7. The ages of patients ranged from 5 to 70 years, with a mean of 27.06±15.45 years. The mandible accounted for nine (56.3%) cases and the maxilla for six (37.5%) cases, while a combination of the maxilla and the zygoma were involved in one (6.3%) case. Bucco-lingual or bucco-palatal expansion were the most common presentation (six [46.2%] cases each). Histological assessment of tissue specimens showed that fibromyxoma accounted for seven (43.8%) cases, while the remaining nine (56.3%) cases were diagnosed as myxoma. All patients had jaw resections, and these consisted of mandibulectomies in nine (60.0%) patients and maxillectomies in six (40.0%) patients. The duration of hospital stay ranged from 5 to 29 days, with a mean of 17.86±7.68 days. Complications were noted in three patients, and all were surgical wound infections.
Most patients in our environment present late with large tumors and are usually not compliant with follow-up review. Thus, a radical approach is favored in most patients.


Main Subjects

1. Epivatianos A, Iordanidis S, Zaraboukas T. Myxoma of the Oral Soft Tissues: Report of a Case and Literature Review. Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65:317–20.
2. Quintal MC, Tabet JC, Oligny L, Russo P. Oral soft tissue myxoma: report of a case and review of the literature. J Otolaryngol 1994;23:42–5.
3. Ajike SO, Amanyeiwe UE, Adekeye EO. Myxoma of the jaw bones: Analysis of 27 cases. Nig J Surg Res 2000;2:123–6.
4. DeFatta RJ, Verret DJ, Ducic Y, Carrick K. Giant myxomas of the maxillofacial skeleton and skull base. Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surg 2006;134:931–5.
5. Ghosh BC, Huvos AG, Gerold FP, Miller TR. Myxoma of the jaw bones. Cancer 1973; 31:237–40.
6. Allen PW. Myxoma is not a single entity: a review of the concept of myxoma. Ann Diagn Pathol 2000; 4:99–123.
7. Melo GM, Tavares TV, Curado TA, Cherobin GB, Gonçalves GNH, Ribeiro CMF. Myxoma of Cervical Soft Tissue: Case Report and Literature Review. Intl. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol São Paulo 2008;12:587–90.
8. Cidel LE, Rodríguez RR, Taylor AM. Odontogenic myxoma. Clinical case presentation. Revista Odontológica Mexicana 2011;15:243–9.
9. Hassan FO. Extragnathic fibromyxoma of the calcaneum: report of a case. Foot and Ankle Surgery 2002; 8:59–62.
10. Stout AP. Myxoma, the tumor of primitive mesenchyme. Ann Surg 1948;127:706–19.
11. Klimo P, Jha T, Choudhri AF, Joyner R, Michael LM. Fibromyxoma of the Lateral Skull Base in a Child: Case Report. J Neurol Surg Rep 2013;74:   105–10.
12. Moore BA, Wine T, Burkey BB, Amedee RG, Butcher RB. Sphenoid Sinus Myxoma: Case Report and Literature Review. The Ochsner Journal 2008; 8:166–71.
13. Mavrogenis AF, Casadei R, Gambarotti M, Ruggieri P. Fibromyxoma of the Axis. Orthopedics 2012; 35:e1133–5.
14. Braut T, Marijić B, Sokolić Z, Kujundžić M, Maržić D, Starčević R. Myxoma of the Zygomatic Bone – A Case Report. Coll. Antropol 2015;1:215–7.
15. White JR, Weiss S, Anderson D, Mason SE, Schexnaildre MA, Nuss DW, et al. Transoral Resection of a Retropharyngeal Myxoma: A Case Report. Skull Base Reports 2011;1:139–44.
16. Moshiri S, Oda D, Worthington P, Myall R. Odontogenic myxoma: histochemical and ultrastructural study. J Oral Pathol Med 1992; 21:401–3.
17. Slootweg PJ, Wittkampf ARM. Myxoma of the jaws: an analysis of 15 cases. J Max Fac Surg 1986; 14:46–52.
18. Brannon RB. Central odontogenic fibroma, myxoma (odontogenic myxoma, fibromyxoma), and central odontogenic granular cell tumor. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2004;16:359–74.
19. Borkar SS, Kamath SG, Kashyap N, Sagar SCV, Rao L, Warrier R, et al. Carney Complex: case report and review. Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2011; 6:25.
20. Fu S, Tian Z, Zhang C, He Y. Monosotic fibrous dysplasia and solitary intramuscular myxoma of the head and neck: A unique presentation of Mazabraud's syndrome and a literature review. Oncology Letters 2015; 10:3087–94.
21. Fomete B, Adebayo ET, Agbara R, Ayuba GI. Massive peripheral odontogenic myxoma in a child: Case report and review of literature. J Oral and Maxillofacial Surg Med Pathol 2014;26:163–5.
22. Reichart PA, Philipsen HP. Odontogenic tumors and allied lesions. Illinois: Quintessence Publishing Co Ltd; 2004.
23. Kaffe I, Naor H, Buchner A. Clinical and radiological features ofodontogenic myxoma of the jaws. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 1997;26:299–303.
24. Andrews T, Kountakis SE, Mailard AA. Myxomas of the head and neck. Am J Otolaryngol 2000; 21:184–9.
25. Simon ENM, Merkx MAW, Vuhahula E, Ngassapa D, Stoelinga PJW. Odontogenic myxoma: a clinicopathological study of 33 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004;33:333–7.
26. Friedrich RE, Scheuer HA, Fuhrmann A, Zustin J, Assaf AT. Radiographic Findings of Odontogenic Myxomas on Conventional Radiographs. Anticancer Research 2012; 32:2173–8.
27. Happonen RP, Peltola J, Ylipaavalniemi P, Lamberg M. Myxoma of the jaw bones. An analysis of 13 cases. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1988; 84:45–52.
28. Peltola J, Magnusson B, Happonen RP, Borrman H. Odontogenic myxoma – a radiographic study of 21 tumors. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1994;32:298–302.
29. Li TJ, Sun LS, Luo HY. Odontogenic Myxoma A Clinicopathologic Study of 25 Cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006;130:1799–1806.
30. James DR, Lucas VS. Maxillary myxoma in a child of 11 months: A case report. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 1987; 15:42–4.
31. Moghadam SE, Chookhachizadeh S, Baghaii F, Alaeddini M. Odontogenic Myxoma: A study based on biopsy material over a 40-year period. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014; 15:137–41.
32. Keszler A, Dominguez FV, Giannunzio G. Myxoma in childhood: An analysis of 10 cases. J Oral Moxlllofoc Surg 1995;53:516–21.
33. Zhang J, Wang H, He X, Niu Y, Li X. Radiographic examination of 41 cases of odontogenic myxomas on the basis of conventional radiographs. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2007;36:160–7.
34. Kheir E, Stephen L, Nortje C, Rensburg LJ, Titinchi F. The imaging characteristics of odontogenic myxoma and a comparison of three different imaging modalities. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013;116:492–502.
35. Jankowski DS, Yeungb RWK, Lic T, Leeb KM. Computed tomography of odontogenic myxoma. Clinical Radiology 2004;59:281–7.
36. Lo Muzio L, Nocini P, Favia G, Procaccini M, Mignogna MD. Odontogenic myxoma of the jaws: a clinical, radiologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1996;82:426–33.
37. Adebayo ET, Fomete B, Ajike SO. Spontaneous bone regeneration following mandibular resection for odontogenic myxoma. Ann Afr Med. 2012;11:182–5.
38.  Pahl S, Henn W, Binger T, Stein U, Remberger K. Malignant odontogenic myxoma of the maxilla: case with cytogenic confirmation. J Laryngol Otol 2000;114:533-5.