Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Three Cases and a Literature Review

Document Type: Case Report

Authors

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), School of Medical Sciences (FCM), São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Introduction:
A keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign intra-bone mass originating from dental lamina or its residue. It represents 2–11% of jaw cysts, and has a slow but aggressive growth. The evaluation of molecular characteristics, immunohistochemistry, and genetic expression currently have no established classification regarding the evolution and pathophysiologic pattern of these lesions.
 
Materials and Methods:
This is a clinical retrospective study with a full analysis of patient history regarding physical evaluation, radiologic images, pathology results, and surgical resection. We performed a major literature review concerning current concepts relating to its biological characterization.
 
Results:
Three cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor were identified. Two of the cases were large, with aggressive behavior and significant bone destruction and recurrence, which had been overlooked for more than a decade. The third case had an early diagnosis, and the treatment led to full recovery and complete healing.
Conclusion: 
The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign lesion with slow growth, which lends itself to a more conservative treatment, even in cases of large lesions. A better understanding of these tumors, both at the biological and molecular level, could lead to guidelines for treatment and prognosis of such patients.

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