Isolated Sphenoid Sinus Inflammatory Disease- A Report of 14 Cases

Document Type: Original

Authors

Department of Otolaryngology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy.

Abstract

Introduction:
Isolated sphenoid sinus inflammatory diseases (ISSIDs) are responsible for about 75% of isolated sphenoid sinus opacifications. Computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used in a complementary manner for the assessment of ISSIDs. This evaluation sheds some light on the extent of disease and intracranial and intra-orbital involvement.
 
Materials and Methods:
The current study aimed to evaluate the medication histories of 14 patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for ISSIDs within 2015-2018. This assessment was carried out to analyze the presenting symptoms, diagnostic work-up, additional therapies, and complications. Moreover, it can help us compare our data with pertinent literature.
 
Results:
As evidenced by the obtained results, ISSID lesions included bacterial sphenoiditis (42.9%), fungus ball (21.4%), invasive fungal sphenoiditis (14.3%), mucocele (14.3%), and retention cysts (7.1%). In addition, headache was found to be the major complaint, followed by nasal symptoms. Diplopia, and signs and symptoms of the involvement of other cranial nerves were less frequent. All patients underwent endoscopic transnasal sphenoidectomy. The overall survival rate was reported as 92.9% (13/14), and all patients with cranial nerve palsies demonstrated complete clinical remission.
 
Conclusion:
Both the review of related literature and our clinical cases were indicative of the dangerous consequences of ISSIDs. Their varied and unspecific presentation and the limited reliability of nasal endoscopy required the cooperation of ENT (ear, nose, and throat) team with other specialists to make an accurate diagnosis and decide on the most appropriate therapeutic choices. If the signs of intracranial complications were detected, surgery should be promptly performed to maximize the chances of recovery.

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