Predictors of Olfactory Impairment among Northern Iranian Population

Document Type: Original


1 Otorhinolaryngology Research Center, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

2 Guilan Legal Medicine Organization, Rasht, Iran.



The performance in most smell identification tests is subjected to cultural variations. This study aimed to evaluate age, gender, and smoking-related effects on the test performance in the North of Iran.
Materials and Methods:
The olfactory function of 1470 eligible subjects was assessed in this study. Moreover, this study evaluated the influence of age, gender, and education on the test scores.
According to the results, females obtained higher mean test scores, compared to males (18.4 vs. 17.6). In general, the elderly obtained lower scores, and about 30% of the subjects who were ≥65 years of age had severe hyposmia or anosmia. Furthermore, the olfactory impairment frequency in smoker subjects was significantly more than non-smokers (P<0.001). Test scores were generally higher in subjects with higher education levels. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the total number of cigarette doses in smokers and age had a significant association with olfactory dysfunction (P value <0.001 and 0.004, respectively). Cronbach’s α of Iran-SIT was obtained at 0.78 which was more than an acceptable value of 0.7.
The findings of this study revealed that a low score in the Iran-SIT correlated with smoking, older age, low education level, and gender (male).


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