Comparison of the Speech Syntactic Features between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Children

Document Type: Original

Authors

1 PhD Linguistics Associate Professor; Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2 PhD Student in Linguistics International Campus of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Introduction:
The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes.
 
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach. Hearing children had an average age of 5.45 ±1.9 years and subjects had a mean age of 5.43±2.17 years and their rehabilitation had begun before they were 18 months old. The assessment instrument of the study included the language development test, TOLDP-3. The syntactic skills of these children were analyzed and compared with the hearing children of the same age based on gender.
 
Results:
There was a significant difference between the syntactic scores of the hearing-impaired children and the scores of the hearing children of the same age in the “sentence imitation” (t=−2/90, P<0/05) and “grammatical completion” (t=−3/39, P<0/05) subtests, with no significant difference in the “grammatical understanding” subtest (t=1/67, P>0/05). Moreover, there was no significant difference between male and female children with hearing impairment in terms of syntactic skills development.
 
Conclusion: 
With early diagnosis and timely rehabilitating intervention, children with hearing loss can perform in a similar way to children of their age with normal hearing in some syntactical areas. Furthermore, the gender factor in the present study had no effect on the development of syntactical skills of children with hearing loss.
 

Keywords


1. Chapman RS .Children’s language learning: an interactionist perspective. J Child Psy. 2000: 41(1): 33–54.

2. Northen JL, Downs MP. Hearing in children.5th edition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins 2002: 1–31.

3. Blamy PJ. Development of spoken language by deaf children. In: Marsckark M, Spencer PE, Nathan PE. The Oxford handbook of Deaf Studies, J Lang Edu. New York: Oxford University Press 2010; 232–45.

4. Sharma A, Dorman MF, Kral A. The influence of a sensitive period on central auditory development in children with unilateral and bilateral cochlear implants. Hearing Research. 2005; 203(1-2):            134–43.

5. Plante E, Beeson PM. Communication and communication disorders: a clinical introduction. 3rdedition. Massachusetts:  Pearson Edu 2007; 1–22. 

6. Yoshinaga-Itano C, Apuzzo M, Coulter D, et al. The Effect of early identification of hearing loss on developmental outcomes. Paper presented at the Third Annul Infant Hearing Screening Seminar, Providence, RI 1998.

7. Miller CA. Developmental relationships between language and theory and theory of mind. Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2006; 15(2): 142–54.

8. Fitch WT, Hauser M.D, Chomsky N. The Evolution of language faculty: clarification and implication. J Cognition 2005; 97: 179–210.

9. Paul R. Language disorders from Infancy though dolescence. 3rd edition. St Luis Missouri: Mosby. 2007.

10. Paul PV. Language acquisition: Perspectives, development and relation to thought. In: Language and Deafness. 4th ed. London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers 2008;116–71.

11. Kricoss BP, Seyfried DN. Speech and Language Characteristics, Assessment and Management issues. In: Schow RL, Nerbonne MA. Introduction to Aural Rehabilitation. Boston: Allyn & Bacon 1996,           168–229.

12. Bamford JE, Saunders E. Hearing impairment, auditory perception and language disability. London:whurr 1992.

13. Gray S. Word learning by preschoolers with specific language impairment: effect of phonological or semantic cues.J Speech Lang Hear Res 2003: 46(5): 56–67.

14. Geers AE. Factors influencing spoken language outcomes in children following early cochlear implantation. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 2006; 64: 50–65.

15. Moeller MP, Hoover B, Putman C, et al. Vocalizations of infants with hearing loss compared with infants with normal hearing: Part II--transition to words. Ear Hear 2007; 28(5): 628–42.

16. Nott P, Cowan R, Brown PM, Wigglesworth G. Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: part II—content of the first lexicon. Ear Hear 2009; 30(5): 541–51.

17. Lotfi Y, Zarifian T, Mehrkian S, RahgozarM. Language Characteristics of Preschool Children with Hearing loss in Tehran(Persian) .J  Audiology 2009; (18): 88–97.

18. Golpour L, Nilipour R, Roshan B. A comparison between morphological and syntactic features of 4 to 5 years old in education severe to profound hearing impaired and normal children (Persian). J  Audiology 2007; 15(2): 23–9.

19. Newcomer PL. Hammill DD. Test of language development primary (3th edition). Adaptation and standardization to Persian language by Hassanzadeh S, Minaei A, Res Ins Excep Child 2001.

20. Brouk F. The effectiveness of play therapy on phonological awareness in children. MA Thesis. Ferdowsi Uni Mashhad 2013.

21. The effectiveness of linguistic plays on phonological awareness and semantic development on orphans and vulnerable children. (OVC).Peters K, Remmel E, Richards D. Language mental state vocabulary and false belief understanding in children with cochlear implants. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2009; 40(3): 245–55.

 

22. Zarifian T, Mohamadi R, Mahmoudi BB. Syntactical Skills of Persian Hearing Impaired and typically normal children: A Comparative Research. (Persian). J Research in Rehabilitation Sciences, 2012.

23. Williams C. Teacher judgment of the language skills of children in the early years of schooling. Child Lang Teach Ther 2006; 22(2): 135–54.

24. Yoshinaga-Itano C. Early identification, communication modality and the development of speech and spoken language skills: Patterns and considerations. In Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. E. (Eds.). Advances in the spoken language of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. New York, 2006. 298–327.

25. Yoshinaga-Itano C, Thomson V. The Colorado newborn hearing screening project: effects on speech and language development for children with hearing loss. J Perinatology, 2000; 20(8): 132–37.

26. Hall JW, Mueller HG. Audiologist’s Desk Reference. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, INC. 1994. (1) 441–85.

27. Kennedy CR, McCann DC, Campbell MJ et al. Language ability after early detection of permanent childhood hearing impairment. New England. J Med 2006; 354 (20): 2131–41.

28. Mofidi F, Sabz B. The effect of language acquisition in preschool years on the spoken language development in first-year elementary student 2009. 118–41.

29. Brown R. A first Language. The early stages. Cambridge Mass: Harvard Uni Press 1973.

30. Robert B, Hogarty S, Hurlburt N. infant sensorimotor development and the prediction of childhood IQ.American Psychologist, Vol 27(8), Aug 1972, 728-48.