Reactive Hyperplastic Lesions of the Oral Cavity

Document Type: Original


1 Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

2 School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.


Peripheral reactive lesions of soft tissue are common oral lesions that dentists face during routine examinations. Diagnosis and development of a treatment plan is difficult if dentists are not aware of the prevalence and clinical symptoms of these lesions. The frequency of these lesions differs across various populations. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of oral reactive lesions over a period of 7 years (2006–2012).
Materials and Methods:
In this retrospective study, available records from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Dental School and the two main hospitals in southeast of Iran (Zahedan) over a period of 7 years (2006–2012) were reviewed. Information relating to the type of reactive lesion, age, gender and location was extracted and recorded on data forms. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software (V.18) using the chi-square and Fisher’s exact test.
Of 451 oral lesions, 91 cases (20.2%) were reactive hyperplastic lesions. The most common lesions were pyogenic granuloma and irritation fibroma, respectively. These lesions were more frequent in women (60%) than men (40%). The most common locations of involvement were the gingiva and alveolar mucosa of the mandible, and lesions were more common in the 21–40-year age group. The relationship between age group and reactive lesions was statistically significant (P=0.01).
The major findings in this study are broadly similar to the results of previous studies, with differences observed in some cases. However, knowledge of the frequency and distribution of these lesions is beneficial when establishing a diagnosis and treatment plan in clinical practice.


Main Subjects

1. Effiom OA, Adeyemo WL, Soyele OO. Focal reactive lesions of the gingiva: an analysis of 314 cases at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. Niger Med J 2011; 52(1):35–40.

2. Jalayer Naderi N, Eshghyar N, Esfehanian H. Reactive lesions of the oral cavity: A retrospective study on 2068 cases. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012; 9(3): 251–5.

3. Reddy V, Saxena S, Reddy M. Reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity: A ten year observational study on North Indian Population. J Clin Exp Dent 2012; 4(3):e136–40.

4. Amirchaghmaghi M, Mohtasham N, Mosannen Mozafari P, Dalirsani Z. Survey of reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity in Mashhad, northeast Iran. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2011; 5(4):128–131.

5. Seyedmajidi M, Hamzehpoor M, Bagheri- moghaddam S. Localized lesions of oral cavity: a clinicopathological study of 107 cases. Res J Med Sci 2011; 5(2): 67–72.

6.Al-Khateeb TH. Benign oral masses in a northern Jordanian population-a retrospective study. Open Dent J 2009; 3: 147–53.

7.   MashhadiAbbas F, Moharamkhani V, Houshmand B, Chaghazardi S, Arab S. Prevalence of peripheral soft connective tissue lesions in patients referred to pathology department of shahid beheshti dental school, 1981-2006. Journal of Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences 2008; 26(1): 79–84. (Persian)

8. Seifi S, Nosrati K. Prevalence of Oral Reactive Lesions and their Correlation with Clinico-pathologic Parameters. RJMS 2010; 17(76):36–44. (Persian)

9.  Aghbali AA, Vosough Hosseini S, Harasi B, Janani M, Mahmoudi SM. Reactive hyperplasia of the oral cavity: a survey of 197 cases in Tabriz, northwest of Iran. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2010; 4(3):87–9.

10. Hashemi Pour MA, Rad M, Mojtahedi A. A survey of soft tissue tumor-like lesions of oral cavity: a clinicopathological study. Iranian Journal of Pathology 2008; 3(2):81–7.

 11. Buchner A, Shnaiderman-Shapiro A, Vered M. Relative frequency of localized reactive hyperplastic lesions of the gingiva: a retrospective study of 1675 cases from Israel. J Oral Pathol Med 2010; 39:631–8.


12. Omidian M,Mostofi N, Bahranifard H. Pathological aspects of oral lesions in Ahwaz, Iran (1994-2004). J Gorgan Uni Med Sci 2009; 11(1):       57-61. (Persian)

13.  Shamim T, Varghese VI, Shameena PM, Sudha S. A retrospective analysis of gingival biopsied lesions in south Indian population: 2001-2006. Med Oral Pathol Oral Cir Bucal 2008; 13(7):E414–18.

14. Ababneh KT. Biopsied gingival lesions in northern Jordanians: A retrospective analysis over 10 years. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2006; 26 (4): 387–93.

15.  Zhang W, Chen Y, An Z, An Z, Geng N, Bao D. Reactive gingival lesions: a retrospective study of 2,439 cases. Quintessence Int 2007; 38:103–10.

 16.  Kfir Y, Buchner A, Hansen LS. Reactive lesions of the gingiva. A clinicopathological study of 741 cases. J Periodontol 1980; 51:655–61.

17. Stablein MJ, Silverglade LB. Comparative analysis of biopsy specimens from gingiva and alveolar mucosa. J Periodontol 1985; 56: 671–6.

18. Macleod RI, Soames JV. Epulides: a clinicopathological study of a series of 200 consecutive lesions. Br Dent J 1987; 163:51–3.

19.  Daley TD, Wysocki GP, Wysocki PD, Wysocki DM. The major epulides: clinicopathological correlations. J Can Dent Assoc 1990; 56:627–30.

 20. Zarei MR, Chamani G, Amanpoor S. Reactive hyperplasia of the oral cavity in Kerman province,

Iran: A review of 172 cases. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 45(4):288–292.

21.  Kashyap B, Reddy PS, Nalini P. Reactive lesions of oral cavity: a survey of 100 cases in Eluru, West Godavari district. Contemp Clin Dent 2013; 3(3):  294–7.

 22. Amirchakhmaghi M, Mohtasham N, Saidi M. Clinical and Demographic Findings of Oral Exophytic Lesions in Patients Referred to Oral Medicine Department of Mashhad Dental School-Iran (2004-7). J Mash Dent Sch 2010; 34(3): 179-88. (Persian)