Epidemiological Survey of Sinonasal Malignancy in North-East Iran

Document Type: Original

Authors

1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology- Head & Neck Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Student of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Sinus and Surgical Endoscopic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

Introduction:
Sinonasal malignancies are uncommon neoplasms with several histological subtypes. These malignancies have a poor prognosis and, because of the nonspecific nature of the symptoms, most patients are diagnosed late when the disease is already at an advanced stage. Therefore, most sinonasal malignancies tend to be treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Understanding the incidence and prevalence of clinical symptoms, pathology, diagnosis, and subsequent prognosis of the disease is important for early diagnosis.
 
Materials and Methods:
Medical records of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of sinonasal malignancy in a tertiary referral center from 1998 to 2009 were retrospectively investigated by chronological examination. Information relating to symptoms, pathology, and treatment of patients were collected from the checklists and used to generate tables and graphs, while descriptive statistical tests were used to compare data.
 
Results:
The records of 69 patients were examined, including 45 (65.2%) male and 24 (34.8%) female patients with a combined mean age of 54.07±16.04 years. Twenty-one patients (30.4%) were aged less than 45 years and 48 (69.6%) were more than 45 years of age. The most common symptom was facial swelling in 46 (66.6%) patients and the most common kind of tumor was squamous cell carcinoma in 28 (40.6%) patients. The primary location of the tumor in most patients was the maxillary sinus (54 patients; 78.3%). A majority of patients present in advanced stage (stage III or more) with intraorbital (39.1%) or intracranial (4.3%) involvement, or regional lymphatic (28.99%) or distance metastasis (7.2%). The most common treatment was surgery (17 patients; 24.6%).
 
Conclusion: 
Due to their nonspecific symptoms, most sinonasal malignancies are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. Therefore, all patients with nonspecific symptoms, especially older males, should be evaluated for sinonasal malignancies in order to eliminate this diagnosis.

Keywords

Main Subjects


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