Serum Level of Interleukin-6 in Patients with Oral Tongue Squamous cell Carcinoma

Document Type: Original

Authors

1 Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hazrat Rasool hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4 Department of Pathology, Imam Reza hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Abstract

Introduction:
The clinical outcome of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) located in the head and neck has remained poor despite ongoing advances in diagnosis and management. Interleukin-6(IL-6) is a multi-functional cytokine that plays an important role in the process of cell differentiation and is increased in several malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of interleukin-6 in patients with oral tongue SCC.
 
Materials and Methods:
In a cross-sectional study, 17 patients with oral tongue SCC were compared with the same number of age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Serum IL-6 level fluctuation was determined using an immunological technique, before detecting its possible association with the subjects’ age, gender, drinking and smoking history, cancer site, and disease severity.
 
Results:
The intensity of serum IL-6 in patients with oral tongue SCC was statistically significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P<0.001). Serum IL-6 level was independent of the patients’ age, gender, smoking and drinking history as well as cancer stage.
 
Conclusion: 
IL-6 is a valuable biomarker in the diagnosis of oral tongue SCC. Its high sensitivity makes prediction of this condition possible, while this biomarker can also be used to screen high-risk patients.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1. Parkin DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J. Estimates of the worldwide incidence of 25 major cancers in 1990. Int J Cancer 1999; 80(6):827–41.

2. Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ, Jordan RCK. Oral pathology: clinical, pathologic correlations. 5th ed. St Louis (MO): Saunders Elsevier; 2008.

3. Goepfert H. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: past progress and future promise. CA Cancer J Clin 1998; 48(4):195–8‏.

4. Lingen MW. Angiogenesis in the development of head and neck cancer and its inhibition by chemopreventive agents. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1999; 10(2):153–164.

5. Mashberg A, Russell NS, Bartelink H. Head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 1993; 328(24):1783–4.

6. Riedel F, Zaiss I, Herzog D, Götte K, Naim R, Hörmann K. Serum levels of interleukin-6 in patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res 2005; 25(4):2761–5‏.

7. Marcus B, Arenberg D, Lee J, Kleer C, Chepeha DB, Schmalbach CE, et al. Prognostic factors in oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer 2004;101(12):2779–87‏.

8. Massano J, Regateiro FS, Januário G, Ferreira A. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: review of prognostic and predictive factors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006; 102(1): 67–76.‏

9. Giannopoulou C, Kamma JJ, Mombelli A. Effect of inflammation, smoking and stress on gingival crevicular fluid cytokine level. Journal Clin Periodontol 2003;30(2):145–53.

10. Wang PL, Ohura K, Fujii T, Oido-Mori M, Kowashi Y, Kikuchi M, et al. DNA microarray analysis of human gingival fibroblasts from healthy and inflammatory gingival tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003; 305(4):970–3.

11. St John MA, Li Y, Zhou X, Denny P, Ho CM, Montemagno C, et al. Interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 as potential biomarkers for oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;130(8):929–35‏.

12. Korostoff A, Reder L, Masood R, Sinha U K. The role of salivary cytokine biomarkers in tongue cancer invasion and mortality. Oral Oncol 2011; 47(4):282–7.

13. Rhodus NL, Ho V, Miller CS, Myers S, Ondrey F. NF-κB dependent cytokine levels in saliva of patients with oral preneoplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Detect Prev 2005: 29(1); 42–5.‏

14. SahebJamee M, Eslami M, Atarbashi Moghadam F, Sarafnejad A. Salivary concentration of TNF alpha, IL1 alpha, IL6, and IL8 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2008;13(5):292–5‏.

15. Duffy SA, Taylor JM, Terrell JE, Islam M, Li Y, Fowler K E, Teknos TN. Interleukin-6 predicts recurrence and survival among head and neck cancer patients. Cancer 2008;113(4):750–7‏.

16.  Hamad AWR, Gaphor SM, Shawagfeh MT, Al-Talabani NG. Study of Serum and Salivary Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines, Potential Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.‏ Acad J Cancer Res 2011;4(2):          47-55.

17. Masaaki Oka M, Yamamoto K, Takahashi M, Hakozaki M, Abe T, Iizuka N, et al. Relationship between serum levels of interleukin 6, various disease parameters, and malnutrition in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res 1996; 56(12):2776–80.‏