Is Sudden Hearing Loss Associated with Atherosclerosis?

Document Type: Original

Authors

1 Sinus and Surgical Endoscopic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Department of Neurology, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Department of Cardiology, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

4 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

5 Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

Introduction:
Sudden sensorineural hearing-loss (SSNHL) patients constitute approximately 2–3% of referrals to ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. Several predisposing factors have been proposed for this condition; one of which is vascular disorders and perfusion compromise. In this research the atherosclerotic changes and their known risk factors are studied in SSNHL patients.
 
Materials and Methods:
Thirty SSNHL patients and 30 controls were evaluated with regard to cardiovascular risks including history, heart examination, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, electrocardiogram, blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP); also, carotid artery color Doppler study was undertaken to measure intima media thickness(IMT).
 
Results:
IMT and HSCRP showed an increased risk in the case group compared with the controls
(P= 0.005 & P=0.001). However, waist circumference, history of smoking, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and electrocardiogram revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Interestingly, blood pressure and body mass index were higher in the controls in this study.
 
Conclusion: 
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss may be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1. Whitaker S. Idiopathic sudden hearing loss. Otology & Neurotology. 1980;1(3):180-3.

2. Wilson W. The relationship of the herpesvirus family to sudden hearing loss: a prospective clinical study and literature review. The Laryngoscope. 1986;96(8):870.

3. Byl FM. Sudden hearing loss: eight years' experience and suggested prognostic table. The Laryngoscope. 1984;94(5):647-61.

4. Stokroos R, Albers F, Van Cauwenberge P. Diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). A survey in The Netherlands and Flanders. Acta oto-rhino-laryngologica belgica. 1996;50(3):237.

5. Rajati M, Bakhshaee M, Naghavi E, Hoseinnejad F, Rouhi HR, Movahhed R. Studying VEMP in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 2011;23(64):60-74.

6. Zhang K, Wang F, Zhang Y, Li M, Shi X. Anatomic investigation of the labyrinthine artery. Zhonghua er bi yan hou ke za zhi. 2002;37(2):103.

7. A AH. Sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In: Flint PW HB, Lund VJ, Niparko JL, et al, editor. Cumming’s otolaryngology head and neck surgery

5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2010. 2127-30

8. Arastou S, Tajedini A, Borghei P. Combined Intratympanic and Systemic Steroid Therapy for Poor-Prognosis Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss. Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology 2013; 25(70):23-8.

9. Rauch SD. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008;359(8):833-40.

10. Wong ND. Epidemiological studies of CHD and the evolution of preventive cardiology. Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2014;11: 276–89

11. Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA, Genest J, Gotto Jr AM, Kastelein JJ, et al. Reduction in C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular event rates after initiation of rosuvastatin: a prospective study of the JUPITER trial. The Lancet. 2009;373(9670):1175-82.

12. Vainas T, Lubbers T, Stassen FR, Herngreen SB, van Dieijen-Visser MP, Bruggeman CA, et al. Serum C-reactive protein level is associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm size and may be produced by aneurysmal tissue. Circulation. 2003; 107(8):1103-5.

13. O'Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Manolio TA, Burke GL, Wolfson Jr SK. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. New England Journal of Medicine. 1999; 340(1): 14-22.

14. Takinami Y. Evaluation of effectiveness of stellate ganglion block (SGB) treatment of sudden hearing loss. Acta oto-laryngologica. 2012; 132(1): 33-8.

15. Lin RJ, Krall R, Westerberg BD, Chadha NK, Chau JK. Systematic review and meta‐analysis of the risk factors for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in adults. The Laryngoscope. 2012;122(3): 624-35.

16. Drobinski G, Evans J, Eugène M, Laurenceau J, Huberman J, Bèjean-Lebuisson A, et al. Assessment of the degree of severity of aortic stenosis. Clinical, mechanographic, echographic and hemodynamic study of 22 cases]. Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux. 1981;74(1):21.

17. Pignoli P, Tremoli E, Poli A, Oreste P, Paoletti R. Intimal plus medial thickness of the arterial wall: a direct measurement with ultrasound imaging. Circulation. 1986;74(6):1399-406.

18. Głowińska-Olszewska B, Tołwińska J, Urban M. Interrelationship between endothelial dysfunction, IMT of the carotid arteries and adhesion molecules in obese hypertensive children and adolescents. Pediatric endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism. 2007;13(1):7.

19. Crouse III JR. Predictive value of carotid 2-dimensional ultrasound. The American journal of cardiology. 2001;88(2):27-30.

20. Melling M, Koos W. Abnormality of the labyrinthine artery and its topographical relation to the abducent nerve. Cells Tissues Organs. 1996; 156(2):151-4.

21. Ciccone MM, Cortese F, Pinto M, Di Teo C, Fornarelli F, Gesualdo M, et al. Endothelial function and cardiovascular risk in patients with Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss. Atherosclerosis. 2012; 225(2):511-6.

22. Masuda M, Kanzaki S, Minami S, Kikuchi J, Kanzaki J, Sato H, et al. Correlations of inflammatory biomarkers with the onset and prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Otology & Neurotology. 2012; 33(7): 1142-50.

23. Pearson T A., Mensah G A., Alexander R. W, Anderson J L., Cannon III R O., Criqui M, et al. Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the centers for disease control and prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2003; 107(3):499-511.

24. Nichols WW, Pepine CJ, O’Rourke MF. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(22):1762-3.