Maternal Risk Factors Associated with the Development of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Mexico: A Case-Control Study

Document Type: Original


1 Department of Perinatology, The Women's Hospital, Secretariat of Health, 80127, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico.

2 CIASaP, School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, 80246, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

3 Research Department, The Women's Hospital, Secretariat of Health, 80127, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

4 Department of Internal Medicine, Gulf Coast Medical Center, Panama City, 32405, Florida, USA.

5 Faculty of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, 80000 Culiacán, SIN, Mexico.


Cleft lip and palate, the most common developmental deformity, is seen worldwide and the etiology involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the maternal risk factors associated with the development of cleft lip and cleft palate.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a case control study at the Women’s Hospital in Culiacan, Mexico. Medical records were analyzed, including patients who delivered babies with and without cleft lip and cleft palate from January 2010 to December 2015. Multiple variables were analyzed, including gestational age, weight at birth, the use of folic acid and multivitamins during pregnancy, smoking, alcohol abuse, the use of recreational drugs, history of sexually transmitted infections, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, and nutritional status.
We found that the maternal risk factors with the strongest association for the development of cleft lip and cleft palate were the following: patients who were not taking folic acid during pregnancy [OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.32-8.09], P=0.00; patients who were not taking vitamin supplementation during pregnancy [OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.19-7.27], P=0.02; smoking during pregnancy [OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.23-3.41], P=0.01; and alcohol abuse during pregnancy [OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.17-3.08], P=0.03.
The main risk factors associated with the development of cleft lip and cleft palate in a Mexican population at the Women’s hospital in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were smoking, alcohol abuse, and patients not taking folic acid and multivitamins during pregnancy.


Main Subjects

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