Is the Persian Version of the “Olfactory Disorder Questionnaire” Reliable and Valid?

Document Type: Original

Authors

1 Skull Base Research Center, Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS ), Tehran, Iran.

2 ENT and Head & Neck Research Center, Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS ), Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Introduction:
The Questionnaire for Olfactory Dysfunction (QOD) is a self-reporting olfactory-related quality of life questionnaire. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Persian version of this questionnaire.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and thirteen patients with olfactory problems were enrolled in this study. The English version of the QOD was first translated into Persian. The reliability was then tested by determining the Cronbach alpha coefficient to assess internal consistency. The QOD was reviewed by a panel of experts, followed by calculating the content validity index to determine the content validity.
Results:
Based on the reliability analysis, the total Cronbach alpha was 0.88. The items in the “life quality” and “parosmia” domains had a good internal consistency in total, as well as in both genders and in different age subgroups. For the “sincerity” domain, however, low internal consistency was revealed (Cronbach alpha = 0.25). When questions related to the sincerity domain were omitted, the Cronbach alpha reached 0.89. The overall scale validity index for clarity and relevance were 0.88 and 0.87, respectively.
Conclusion:
The Persian version of the QOD seems to be a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of quality of life in patients with olfactory dysfunction. The “sincerity” domain cannot be used separately or should be substantially modified in order to be applicable to the Iranian population. However, there is no need to change the whole format of the questionnaire.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1. Liu G, Zong G, Doty RL, Sun Q. Prevalence and risk factors of taste and smell impairment in a nationwide representative sample of the US population: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2016; 6(11):e013246.

2. Shiue I. Adult taste and smell disorders after heart, neurological, respiratory and liver problems: US NHANES, 2011-2012. Int J Cardiol. 2015; 179: 46–8.

3. Bhattacharyya N, Kepnes LJ. Contemporary assessment of the prevalence of smell and taste problems in adults. Laryngoscope. 2015; 125:1102–6.

4. Ajmani GS, Suh HH, Wroblewski KE, Kern DW, Schumm LP, McClintock MK, et al. Fine particulate matter exposure and olfactory dysfunction among urban-dwelling older US adults. Environ Res. 2016; 151:797–803.

5. Krusemark EA, Novak LR, Gitelman DR, Wen Li. When the Sense of Smell Meets Emotion: Anxiety-State-Dependent Olfactory Processing and Neural Circuitry Adaptation. J Neurosci.2013; 33(39): 15324- 32

6. Sarafoleanu C, Mella C, Georgescu M, Perederco C. The importance of the olfactory sense in the human behavior and evolution. J Med Life. 2009; 2(2):
196–8.

7. Sivam A, Wroblewski KE, Alkorta-Aranburu G, Barnes LL, Wilson RS, Bennett DA, et al. Olfactory Dysfunction in Older Adults is Associated with Feelings of Depression and Loneliness. Chem Senses. 2016; 41(4):293–9.

8. Simopoulos E, Katotomichelakis M, Gouveris H, Tripsianis G, Livaditis M, Danielides V. Olfaction-associated quality of life in chronic rhinosinusitis: adaptation and validation of an olfaction-specific questionnaire. Laryngoscope. 2012; 122(7):1450–4.

9. Jalessi M, Farhadi M, Kamrava SK, Amintehran E, Asghari A, Rezaei Hemami M, et al. The reliability and validity of the persian version of sinonasal outcome test 22 (snot 22) questionnaires. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013; 15(5):404–8.

10. Katotomichelakis M, Simopoulos E, Zhang N, Tripsianis G, Danielides G, Livaditis M, et al. Olfactory dysfunction and asthma as risk factors for poor quality of life in upper airway diseases. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2013;27(4):293–8.

11. Neuland C, Bitter T, Marschner H, Gudziol H, Guntinas-Lichius O. Health-related and specific olfaction-related quality of life in patients with chronic functional anosmia or severe hyposmia. Laryngoscope. 2011;121(4):867–72.

12. Yang D, Wang J, Ni D, Liu J, Wang X. Reliabilityand validity of the Chinese version of the questionnaire of olfactory disorders (QOD) when used with patients having olfactory dysfunction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016; 273 (10): 3255–61.

13. Kamrava SK, Farhadi M, Jalessi M, Khosravian B, Pousti B, Amin Tehran E, et al. University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification on Iranian Population. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014; 16(1): e7926.

14. Croy I, Buschhüter D, Seo HS, Negoias S, Hummel T. Individual significance of olfaction: development of a questionnaire. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267(1):67–71.

15. Jalessi M, Jahanbakhshi A, Amini E, Kamrava SK, Farhadi M. Impact of nasoseptal flap elevation on sinonasal quality of life in endoscopic endonasal approach to pituitary adenomas. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol.2016;273(5):1199–205.

16. Frank RA, Dulay MF, Niergarth K, Gesteland RC. A comparison of the Sniff Magnitude Test and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test in children and non-native English speakers. Physiol Behav. 2004;81:475–80.

17. Frank RA, Gesteland RC, Bailie J, Rybalsky K, Seiden A, Dulay MF. Characterization of the Sniff MagnitudeTest Robert A. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132:532–6.