Acoustic Sensitivity of the Saccule and Daf Music

Document Type: Original


Department of Audiology, faculty of Rehabilitation, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Hamadan, Iran.


The daf is a large Persian frame drum used as a musical instrument in both popular and classical music which can induce a percussive sound at low frequencies (146–290 Hz) with peaks of up to 130 dBspl. The percussive sounds have a power distribution in the region of saccular sensitivity. In view of the saccular stimulation by sound in humans, we decided to use cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to evaluate the possibility that the daf music may have a disturbing effect on saccular function.
Materials and Methods:
During this case-control study, 18 daf musicians were compared with 20 healthy individuals evaluated in the audiology department of the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Assessment consisted of pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and cVEMPs.
Multiple comparisons of mean the cVEMPs and mean hearing loss at 250 Hz among the three groups (affected, unaffected, and normal ears) were significant. There were no significant differences between all daf players on high-tone loss at 3000 Hz. The daf musicians had bilateral unsymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), with hearing loss at 250 Hz (low-tone loss) and notched audiogram at 3000 Hz (high-tone loss). Eleven musicians with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs had mild (26–40 dBHL) low-tone loss and significant abnormal cVEMPs findings. In contrast, the others had slight (16–25 dBHL) low-tone loss with normal cVEMPs. Exposure to daf music is related to both saccular and cochlear dysfunction.
Exposure to daf music is related to both saccular and cochlear dysfunction.


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